The Matter of Empire examines the philosophical principles invoked by apologists of the Spanish empire that laid the foundations for the material exploitation of the Andean region between 1520 and 1640. Centered on Potosi, Bolivia, Orlando Bentancor’s original study ties the colonizers’ attempts to justify the abuses wrought upon the environment and the indigenous population to their larger ideology concerning mining, science, and the empire’s rightful place in the global sphere. Bentancor points to the underlying principles of Scholasticism, particularly in the work off Thomas Aquinas, as the basis of the instrumentalist conception of matter and enslavement, despite the inherent contradictions to moral principles. Bentancor grounds this metaphysical framework in a close reading of sixteenth-century debates on Spanish sovereignty in the Americas and treatises on natural history and mining by theologians, humanists, missionaries, mine owners, jurists, and colonial officials. To Bentancor, their presuppositions were a major turning point for colonial expansion and paved the way to global mercantilism.
The Matter of Empire is essential reading for anyone contemplating the philosophical underpinnings of the early Spanish Empire.
A compelling contribution to imperial historiography. . . . sure to draw wide interdisciplinary interest.
Original, impressive, and important. Bentancor has written, broadly speaking, an intellectual history that brings together a number of fields—among them, economics, history of science and technology, and philosophy—as well as a number of interrelated subjects, such as the histories of metallurgy, racism, imperialism, capitalism, and globalization. This is serious scholarship.
This book brilliantly demonstrates how two very important presuppositions underlie Spanish imperial practices: instrumentalism and the doctrine that superior forms had to give shape to imperfect matter. Since both are grounded in Thomas Aquinas' ideas—later radicalized by Spanish thinkers—thanks to The Matter of Empire, scholasticism will become fundamental to an understanding of the colonial period.